Ankle surgery may be required to correct a serious deformity of the ankle and its bone structure. Injury (such as a fracture), birth defects, or changes throughout the course of life are the usual culprits. Diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and neuromuscular conditions, may cause severe foot and ankle deformities that, over time, cause pain and difficulty in walking.
Ankle surgeries emphasize the realignment of the structure either around or after removal of the deformity. Various kinds of internal and external fixation devices—some temporary, others permanent—are often required to maintain the appropriate alignment during, and beyond, the healing process.
Ankle surgeries vary in complexity, length, and severity, yet many of them today are conducted on a same-day, outpatient basis. Patients need to arrange for another person to take them home afterwards and stay with them for the first 24 hours following the surgery. Post-operative instructions, provided by your surgeon, will give you the information needed to care for your recovering ankle following surgery.
Chronic Lateral Ankle Pain
Chronic lateral ankle pain is recurring or chronic pain on the outside part of the ankle that often develops after an injury such as a sprained ankle. Read More.
Signs and symptoms include:
- Ankle instability.
- Difficulty walking on uneven ground or in high heels.
- Pain, sometimes intense, on the outer side of the ankle.
- Repeated ankle sprains.
Osteochondritis is a lesion that usually causes pain and stiffness of the ankle joint and affects all age groups. Osteochondritis is caused by a twisting-type injury to the ankle. Symptoms include swelling and ankle pain.
Immobilization of the foot and ankle for a period of time usually resolves the problem. In more severe cases, however, surgery may be prescribed. During the surgery, loose fragments of cartilage and bone are removed from the ankle joint and, in some cases, small drill holes are made in the defect to stimulate new blood vessels and help form scar tissue that will fill the defect.
Arthroscopic surgery on the foot and ankle may be used as a diagnostic or treatment procedure, or both. A small instrument, called an arthroscope, penetrates the skin through small incisions.Tiny cameras can be inserted through the arthroscope, allowing the surgeon to accurately see the area and/or damage. Other small instruments can also be inserted through the arthroscope to make surgical corrections.
Because arthroscopy is less-invasive and traumatic than traditional surgery, it reduces the risk of infection and swelling, and allows for significantly speedier healing and recovery. Most arthroscopic surgeries of the foot and ankle are performed on a same-day, outpatient basis using a local anesthetic.
Nearly one-fourth of all the bones in your body are in your feet. A broken (fractured) bone in your forefoot or in one of your toes is often painful, but rarely disabling. Most of the time, these injuries heal without operative treatment.
There are two types of foot fractures: stress fractures and general bone fractures. Stress fractures usually occur in the bones of the forefoot extending from the toes to the middle of the foot. Stress fractures are like tiny cracks in the bone surface. They can happen with sudden increases in exercise (such as running or walking for longer distances or times), improper training techniques, or a change in surfaces.
Most other types of fractures extend through the bone, and are called bone fractures. They may be stable, in which there is no shift in bone alignment, or displaced, in which the bone ends no longer line up properly. Bone fractures usually result from trauma, such as dropping a heavy object on your foot, or from a twisting injury. If the fractured bone does not break through the skin, it is called a closed fracture. If the fracture does break through the skin, it is called an open fracture.
Because of the complex structures in the foot, there are some other, more specific types of fractures that can occur. For example, the fifth metatarsal, known as the little or pinky toe, is susceptible to a variety of different fractures. The relationship between the ankle and the foot can be compromised by an ankle-twisting injury, which may tear the tendon that attaches to this bone and pull a small piece of the bone away. A more serious injury in the same area is known as a Jones fracture, which occurs near the base of the bone and disrupts its blood supply. This injury may take longer to heal or require surgery.
Common symptoms for any type of foot fracture includes pain, swelling, and sometimes bruising. Be sure to seek medical attention for any suspected foot fracture.
Achilles Tendon Surgery
Surgery to repair a torn (ruptured) Achilles tendon is conducted on an outpatient basis using a local anesthetic. It involves making an incision or cut in the back of the leg above the heel to access the torn tendon. The tendon is then sewn back together. Surgery may be delayed for about one week after the rupture to let the swelling go down.
After surgery, a cast or walking boot is usually worn for six to 12 weeks. At first, the cast or boot is positioned to keep the foot pointed downward as the tendon heals. The cast or boot is then adjusted gradually to put the foot in a neutral position (not pointing up or down).
Specific gentle exercises (restricted motion) after surgery can shorten the time needed in rehabilitation.
Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction
The posterior tibial tendon starts in the calf, stretches down behind the inside of the ankle, and attaches to bones in the middle of the foot. This tendon helps hold the arch up and provides support when stepping off on your toes when walking. If it becomes inflamed, over-stretched or torn, it can cause pain from the inner ankle. Over time, it can lead to losses in the inner arch on the bottom of your foot and result in adult-acquired flatfoot. Read More.
Peroneal Tendon Dislocation/Dysfunction
Peroneal tendons support two important foot muscles (Peroneus Brevis and Peroneus Longus) that originate on the outside of the calves. These two muscles allow you to roll to the outside of your foot while standing.
Peroneal tendons are also called stirrup tendons because they help hold up the arch of the foot. The two muscles are held in place by a band of tissue, called the peroneal retinaculum. Injury to the retinaculum can cause this tissue to stretch or tear. When this happens, the peroneal tendons can dislocate from their groove on the back of the fibula. The tendons can be seen to roll over the outside of the fibula, which damages the tendons. Read More.